At the beginning, our association was called the summer workshops; but when it’s summer north of the equator, it’s winter in the south. Then we call ourselves Workshops. We have done 37 in Ile-de-France in the last 37 years, 80 in all, including those we have done internationally. The workshops, known as international urban project management, have the characteristic of being a source of proposals for decision-makers.
This year, the Ile-de-France workshop is about « life in metropolises in the 21st century ». It is the exceptional preparation of this place of creativity, each time renewed, that I invite you to taste, in the form of a soap opera; with the distance befitting the sun, taking flight your reactions on this hot question, the life we want, in a dozen episodes.
It took us two years of preparatory work to plow the field of this workshop before two dozen young professionals from all disciplines, from around the world will produce next September good questions at the right scales of territory and ideas for action, presented to an international jury.
If we continue to manufacture this formula since 37 years, workshop after workshop, it is that it has demonstrated its effectiveness: the most decisive being the change of venue of the Shanghai World Expo 2010 from the grounds around from the airport to those in the city center. Other projects in Île-de-France have benefited, at their emergence, from the proposals of these young professionals and debates thus established: Paris Saclay, for example, which concentrates a quarter of the French research and the international competition of ideas of urban planning and sustainable development which launched its creation in the wake of the workshop. Farther back in time, the stopping of slab urbanism, the creation of the international district of Anfa in Morocco, or the table of 22 mayors of the agglomeration of Puebla … who had never met.
As always, preparation begins with the definition of a subject and a territory; and muscular debates.
Episode 1 : Hot in front
In this very old time, at that time, there was a public establishment of the new city of Cergy-Pontoise. His chief urbanist and two others invented the summer workshops, to renew the ideas of the fabrication of the city. Particularity of the chief urbanist: arrived at the Institute of planning and development of the parisian région shortly before Paul Delouvrier,- the delegate of the then President of the Republic, appointed by General de Gaulle to make the master plan of the Paris region-, Bertrand Warnier keeps the course of what has been the added value of the Workshops for 37 years: the issues and the method . In 2016, he wanted the topic « life in the metropolis in the 21st century » for the workshop Paris region 2018. Since then, a young architect and me have also become the pilots of this workshop, backed by a team employees, for a workshop financed by our public and private partners.
To understand what we make, a drawing is better than a long speech, the work of a workshop is located on the first steps of the stairs: the emergence of a project.
On this background and as usual, Bertrand draws a first proposal of subject and territory. This time, he has a heavy hand, like the subject who is of weight: 11 pages of commented drawings. I complete a one-page text for our partners, because of heated debates: for some, thinking long-term is useless. For us this allows us to know better what we have to do tomorrow morning. It’s April 2017;the choice of the subject of the 2018’s whorkshop is at stake; The 11 + 1 pages, in their juice :20180723 EN Hot in front
Episode 2 : background recovery
Some exchanges later, on the proposal of our scientific orientation committee, the subject of the workshop is validated by the board of directors of our association. And with him the realization of a launching seminar of this ambitious subject, to be organized in the wake of the jury of the 2017 workshop which was about the inclusive city.
September 2017: Bertrand has prepared for the occasion a first poster for the 2018 workshop; the idea is to recruit the participants before the end of 2017, -it’s unusual but at the height of the subject-, so that they can work alone or by mail from where they come from. Let’s cut short, that will not happen.
But the subject is on the table, at the IAU, September 25, 2017, debated a day by thirty experts fed by half a dozen speakers.
At the introduction of the seminar, Bertrand said: « everything moves, -agriculture, work, digital …, unpredictably but continuously and everything goes wrong, -the climate in the first place. » And adds: the metropolis in Paris is on the verge of great changes but does not seem to be provided with a precise vision, while history has shown that it mark the territory, permanently: Paris and the green areas of Alphand to XIXth century, the metropolis of balances and new cities in the XXth century »
For me, the vision to build can not ignore the climate wall that overlooks life in the twenty-first century and conditions everything else. This evidence is far from being shared. Three pages try to drive the nail. They conclude by: we are the problem, we are the solution; a question is asked at the seminar: what does it change?
Invited to think at this level, the vision to be built, the speakers work on three themes: The metropolis and its inhabitants in the face of gigantism / digital, a challenge for the collective intelligence / metropolises face the climate challenge. This phase of the workshop is just an introduction. The fruit that comes out is green but promising. It points to the contradiction between the desire for proximity and gigantism with its consequence, distance between home and work; the contradiction also between the distracted search for profits of digital companies and the freedom, the private life of everyone; moreover the gap between the carelessness of the world middle class and the climatic wall, close to us.
The Chinese teacher introduces us to Harbin, its polar cold, the treatment of its public spaces and how to treat the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The former chief planner of the SOM agency tells us how he met the mayors of the cities of the Great Lakes on both sides of the US-Canada border around the water resource and more until the creation of the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Cities Alliance, which now shares a platform of experiences. Our referent climate explains the staircase of the conviction of the COP 21 and quotes a figure: past one per thousand convinced, a public policy wins the support of the population. There are also contributions on the demographic forecasts of the Île-de-France, the urban policy of Mexico City, the report on the smart city in the National Assembly, collective intelligence and digital, changes in the modes of transport; and debates …
The first ingredients of the pot to the fire do not give all their taste yet but they are immersed in the pot. The construction of a vision is initiated.
In the following weeks, during the production of the second call sign, the contrast is striking between the openness of the contributions and debates of this seminar and the extent of the disagreements. The main thing, however, is to prepare the material that will be available to the participants: contradictory as for all the workshops, as close as possible to questions, the opposite of a tasteless broth. The graphics have been much worked: the man with the brush has taken his place.
The texts of the poster will reflect these disagreements: a recto with millimeter terms and a verso catch-all. But the essential is in place: the call for applications is launched this November 7, 2017 and we will organize well 4 metropolitan evenings, to enrich our visions, -contrasts, of observations, experiences, experiences, analyzes and operational experiences: affiche_v9_en
Episode 3: Subjects and contradictions
We now have two pans on the fire: the subject document and the organization of the first metropolitan evening that I took the responsability. This is the first time that workshops have organized such parties; to invent it, I write a proposal note. It dates well our ambitions and the method envisaged, at this stage; extract:
« The evening is part of a series of four in all: the other three have the theme, » Living and working, « » attractiveness of metropolises « , » Digital and lifestyles. » The productive seminar will be inserted in the middle. It will lead to a dozen questions, documented in a 4 pages. The background document will integrate all the questions of the evenings and the seminar.
Metropolitan evenings aim at enriching the workshop and the debates based on the situations and the statements of the experts of the metropolises on the international scene. With consensus identification and disagreements by topic.
So, what life in the metropolis in an international vision. The Question: you are in charge of the Capital Region, you do what, has the merit of putting our guests in situation.
A real-time internet broadcast is to be planned. This aspect is major insofar as participants will not be able to attend.
The participants selected in early 2018 and organized in teams will be able to work on the subject in multidisciplinary teams, from one end of the world to the other, from where they live and cross their reflections with those conducted by Les Ateliers with experts, companies, elected officials who are at the maneuver, in France and elsewhere.
These afternoons will be co-published with the IAU; and film if funding « .
It is no coincidence that these evenings are barely mentioned in the call for candidates poster: disagreements persist. We will have to postpone the first evening, scheduled for November, at the beginning of February. His story will be for the next episode.
The subject document is off to a good start. It aims to compile data, little, give an global overview and especially focus on the issues that arise. To whom ? To those of the territory, to the actors who act there and to the experts who observe it; for refering them to the participants, for interesting them in applying and then processing them if they are selected.
Matter is abundant, too much; as always but there, even more, with a subject of such magnitude. The magic of the workshops lies in this ability to say too much about a subject, to hear conflicting opinions and then let the participants manage to make relevant proposals when the time comes; as in real life, but in a very short time.
However, we need to get to the basics, from our window of pilots, and then when the text is sufficiently advanced, confront it with the expert eye of the scientific steering committee that sends feedback, ideas and questions to the redactors.
We decide to structure the document with the product of the launch seminar and the themes of the 4 evenings: a chapter for each, around a central question:
The phenomenon of metropolisation: a model that is buoyant or outdated?
Metabolism and climate threat: what to do? How?
What new modalities of the habitat-work relationship
Digital, end in itself or average?
Economic and cultural attractiveness: for whom, for what?
And we add a chapter that is debated, in a title without question:
Individual and collective initiatives: a pool of innovation and a source of inspiration for public policies.
The body of this chapter says one thing and its opposite: an attack against urban planning, an attack against individualism.It ends with a question: how to articulate public policies, in responsibility, with individual initiatives, abounding?And an opening on 4 registers: But beyond reason? The imaginary? The emotions ? The Desires ?
Then three commented questions are following:
– The title of the first seems to implicitly consider that the attractiveness of the metropolis is a good thing:
Attractiveness: how to preserve the attractiveness of the metropolis? Economically and socially?
What the text denies, with very critical questions.
– The second takes up in a few questions the 5 scenarios drawn in the document which served to choose the subject of the workshop (cf episode 1):
What spatial scenarios for tomorrow?
– The third raises the question of the sorting out of the stakes:
What are the crucial issues?
And make a sorting proposal by returning to the central question: how will we live in the metropolis of the 21st century?
The document concludes on a lot of questions, too. it takes a little time to sift this questions.
He finished in one page on the organization of the workshop.
It is about this time that we write the introductory page: starting from the text that was used to choose the subject (see episode 1), enriched.
After two months of work, exchanges and some twists the subject document is published at the beginning of January: 19 pages, illustrated.
Episode 4 : evening dress
As we write the document in several hands, we discuss at the science committee the best way to get on the 4 evenings. It is obvious that for each of them, there must be a leader, taken from the volunteer members of COS. We will call him reference: he or she ensures the good end, with the help of other experts of our association. This referent must surround himself as he wants and decide what is necessary when it is necessary.
I took the first on the climate challenge; Marie-Marie, Director of Urban Development in the agglomeration of the Vendômois territories, takes the second, on inhabit-work-mobility; Frédérique, Director of Education and International at Mines-Télécom Institute, digital; and Laurent, project director at IAU-IdF, economic and cultural attractiveness.
I am trying to edit this very first soiree with Magali, director of sustainable development of one of our partners: Grand Paris Aménagement. This public establishment was until recently called AFTRP, a historical tool of the master plan of Delouvrier of 1965 at the crucial moment of land control.
The first organization note will know 9 versions in one month. It has the merit of framing what we expect from these evenings through the organization of the first (in french)20171027 V9 Note sur la soire-e me-tropolitaine du 8 février
We stall this first evening on 3 questions:
Urban metabolism: how to reinvent daily metabolism of existing cities and territories more sober, more inclusive, integrating the requirements of comforts?
The flexible city: a city that adapts to the speed necessary for an uncertain, shifting context: how to make the city flexible, adaptable to population flows?
The ecological and social transition: can we treat transition and inclusion one by the other? With what urban and rural translation? What articulation of bottom up and top down?
To close the debates, the note on the choice of experts ( in french 20171128 Note sur le choix d’experts of this first evening on « metropolises facing the climate challenge », dated November 27, draws up an inventory. The questions and even more the choice of the type of speakers were discussed a lot
The expected output of the evening is stated as follows:
« An enrichment by what stakeholders bring on the societal, professional or social in their initial interventions: facts that make consensus and debate, the highlighting of practices that work, a vision on what ‘it would be necessary to live well in the metropolitan area, at the speed necessary to escape the climate wall’.
Hence the idea of inviting to the tribune,
– an international player, elected or not, involved and precursor
– and a French or European actor, elected or technician
We are at 6 weeks of the soiree and it will not happen like that.
The first invited participants decline, too well known, too much solicited. We must increase the number of invited to cover the 3 questions chosen. The icing on the cake, Magali gets sick and will not reappear until the soiree. Two COS members, although very busy, Frédérique and Baptiste, come to the rescue.
The idea of a representative of the C40, this group of international metropolises aiming at sustainable development, will finally allow us to invite the project manager of the Parisian climate plan, via a cascade of actors, met as part of the « train climat « , french railway event in the east station of paris (in french)https://trainduclimat.fr/.
The need for a mobilizing narrative will be illustrated by the President of Quattrocento, met during Eco-city in Nantes in 2013.
That of an industrial eco-energies by the president of Tecsol, (a consulting firm specialized in the assembly of photovoltaic projects) who is also president of a pole of competitiveness on the solar; met him during a seminar at the Arene (French regional agency for sustainable development)
Finally the author of the book « these mayors who change everything », contacted via a bookstore where he came to present his book, will explain the effective action of 6 elected in their communes.
It lacks the word of a global observer-actor of the climatic challenge and of an elected representative of an international metropolis at the forefront: impossible to make come otherwise than by extracts of filmed interviews, researched on Internet, passed to the opening of the soirée.
It will be Jean-Claude Jancovici, who built the carbon footprint for ADEME, the French national public agency that innovates in terms of sustainable development; and the Copenhagen mayor, Ritt Bjerreggard, who launched Copenhagen zero carbon, after the failure of COP 15.
I will launch the evening with a few slides that « clear the ground »: superimposing the growth curves of the world population, fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions since 1750: they do not need comment.
we are the problem, we are the solution
This January 17, 2018, 3 weeks before the soirée, the program of the evening is just ready; almost, it misses … a place for the soiree and the modalities of inscription. Thanks to our partners in the department, we will have the roof of the Arch of Defense: a hundred places, what we are aiming for. Internet makes it possible to send the invitations of which only the date has been broadcast so far.
An exceptional snowstorm will occur these days; The region is paralyzed; we will be this February 8 at night only forty in the room …
There will be no broadcast of the evening in real time on the internet. but the evening is filmed by the services of the ministry; for the moment the film is accessible only to members of the Atelier. The written report of the evening, 8 pages illustrated, is accessible here, without a snowstorm to prevent you from accessing it.
How to tell you ? It would interest us if you read it and react on Linkedin or agirlocal.org. This would enrich the workshop.
Episode 5 : to live, work, mobilities.
Marie-Marie starts organizing the second evening just before Christmas with two other members of our association: Olivier is director of development at Icade, French real estate group, subsidiary of the Caisse des Depots et Consignations, in charge of a demonstrator at the gates of Paris; Jean is an expert in transportation and mobility systems at Renault Group.
The 3 fields of the evening are covered: living-work-mobilities.
A month later, the 3 questions that frame the soiree are stated. It is Simon one of the two assistants of the workshop who began to synthesize the exchanges for the first time without going so far as to « use the format of the form for the moment ».
– New forms of work and networking that change the mobility and expectations of the city:
How to imagine the future lifestyles in the domestic sphere (habitat, leisure) and work? How will we work? Does the job market have a future? Will it be necessary to move? Should the city adapt to these new spatial dynamics of employment and to these less homogeneous and predictable rhythms? Is proximity the answer to these different issues?
– The metropolis is deeply destabilized by these uses, which will become more generalized
How can a metropolis, an urban area, structure the various functions that characterize it, with priority given to the two essential functions that are inhabited and worked? Are we going towards the end of the centralities, pole of attractivities gathering functions to live and work, towards a world à la carte, without proximity, without obvious need to go « in the center »? Are we witnessing the death of the city centers? How does one organize this dilation of space and this restriction of time?
Which company model is in watermarked? And what role for communities?
What sovereignty, what governance vis-à-vis « unframed » actors with a great influence on urban metabolism? What citizen participation in this new world? What effects of social and spatial (de) partitions?
How is the urban phenomenon organized with the new entrants and the increasing participation of the citizens and the ever increasing rise of the individualism?
Educated by the experience of editing the first evening, the first list of possible speakers is very broad. There will remain three:
Astrid Sultan, Project Manager « Real Estate 3.0 » – ICADE
Mathieu Saujot, Coordinator of the Digital & Ecological Transitions Initiative at the Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations
Guillaume Faburel, Urban Geographer, Professor at the Lyon Institute of Urban Planning, Researcher at the Triangle Joint Institute (CNRS, Normale Sup, University of Lyon and Saint-Etienne), Sustainable City Specialist: participative mechanisms, new urban solidarities, modes living in eco-neighborhoods, …
The place is quickly set, it is Icade that hosts, at its Open Icade Hub, near Paris. The invitation will leave three weeks before the evening. In light better compared to the first evening.
That night, it does not snow on Paris. We will be a good sixty to listen and exchange.
The speakers approach the theme in a way that is at least contrasted: with the first two, we rub shoulders with nomadism and teleworking, communities and the wage-earning or rather its death announced by some. We point out the differences between promises and reality of life in the unavoidable smart city with the equally inevitable artificial intelligence; the irruption of networks but also tools like the blockchain and we are slowly getting closer to the third soiree on digital with the autonomous vehicle or the right to privacy.
Before the geographer asks: How do we collectively confront the digital revolution, the urban neo-productivism and the race to compete between the world’s metropolises?
It points the fabric of inequalities by the cities, the fact that three quarters of the French population are far away from this, the desire to leave the big cities (80% of Parisians would like today to leave Paris, survey conducted by Cadremploi in August 2017 ) and the majority feeling not to belong to these barbaric urban ensembles (see his book « Barbarian metropolises, de-globalization of the city, de-urbanization of the land, publisher le passager clandestin »). He argues that the acceleration that exhausts the bodies and the overdensity that creates feelings of suffocation, refer to the slowdown that emerges even in political programs. And wonders about: how to fabricate « commons »? Well beyond only third places, emerging.
The exchanges with the room add the growing privatization of the public space, the desertification of certain territories by the metropolis, the fragmentation of powers with the essential articulation of bottom up and top down to get out, the necessary invention Healing places and shared stories around the question of the habitability of space, in town and in the countryside, sustainable.
You said playing the wellbeing against the climate?
The report of the evening can be downloaded here , 6 pages
Episode 6: Productive seminar, under construction
In chronological order, the seminar, which we call productive, is planned on April 12, before the last two metropolitan evenings. We start to work on it as soon as the first soiree métropolitaine, climate challenge, is past; (see episode 4)
Question of substance: next to what highlights will we spend in this seminar that have not been treated in the four soirees?
A note dated one month before the seminar tell the frame of the seminar; extracts:
A- the unrolled
Its purpose is as usual to lead to less than ten questions each documented in a dozen lines; all in a 4 pages which we know is very read.
In the morning, from the transverse entrance by « life in the metropolises », 3 dimensions to be treated, in 3 times an hour:
- the large scale over 180 km (from Paris to Le Havre or from sources in Paris)
- the timetable
- the local economy
The idea is to involve two, maximum three experts with strong innovative content, operational preferably, without exclusiveness. Twice 15 minutes (or three times 10) then half an hour of work with the forty or so present in the room: questions of understanding and complementary lighting of each other.
In the afternoon, table distributions to formulate 3 questions documented per table (to experience, more or less result). Reports in general meeting, with exchanges on key points if not exhausted
All day long, maps and tables are available to point, produce, display, draw, write and calculate.
The experts invited to exhibit in the morning:
- the large scale:
We take advantage of the investment of Philippe Inquist (and his 2 companions), to which we join someone from the Seine-Normandy Water Agency (Paris le Havre). This requires work upstream and downstream of the day with them for the production they plan to do, the restitution in seminar and possible follow-up.
- the timetable
The interest is to focus on the time budgets of each in the gigantic metropolis, to address large scale and proximities of relations, productions, services, life. Operational expert of the office of the times, Lille preferably or Rennes which are among the oldest; Fabienne Commessie, project manager of the study of lifestyles in Strasbourg; a futurist Carine Dartiguepeyrou on socio-cultural developments and emergences.
- the local economy
The prégnance, to say the least, of the economy in life in cities leads to shift the gaze on what can change this life: an expert on the local currency, integrator of solutions and local cooperation Philippe Derudder, historian and practitioner « Complementary local currencies, why, how? »; the circular economy, which is one of the positive effects, Jean Claude Levy, who has the advantage of having a look at China. « Circular economy, world in trance, China in transit »
Optionally, according to his availability: Guillaume Faburel, heard yesterday at the evening to live-work-mobilities; he was passionate about his analysis, the words and the distance he gives to evolutions in action; I solicited with Christine to intervene a few minutes at the end of each sequence; he proposed to come with some students; he sends us 2 contributions on his researches (infrastructural capitalism and immobile forum on 6 world metropolises) » .
At this moment Solenne abandons us for a professional emergency. It is the interest of flying with three different visions and ability to relay. I worked for 10 years with Bertrand; we do not need to talk to each other to do the right thing, by helping each other do it. He took charge of the cards to reflect on during this productive seminar. The big one on the Seine Valley in particular. He organizes the coming of those he calls the Chicago team: Phil Enquist, Meiring Beyers, Drew Wensely; the team proposed to contribute to the workshop by bringing its international experience, on the « large scale and ecology » mode. I assume the rest of the substantive issues and the animation of the seminar itself with our two assistants, Simon and Priscilla, at the spot for several weeks.
The arrival of the Chicago team, three days before the seminar, is a moment of happiness. Bertrand prepared their visit. The first day, we will take them to different high points of the great Parisian landscape. Just landed, we take them on the mound that dominates the airport. For them it is three in the morning. Meiring bends down to grab a handful of land and tells us: « The yields of this wonderful land will fall by 30% with climate change » … after, it’s Villiers le bel / Ecouen; the hillock of Orgemont; the Mont Valérien and return to Paris along the Seine by St Cloud, Issy les Moulineaux. Lunch in Suresnes with a mouthful view of Paris and return to their hotel rue du Bac. Tomorrow it is the great visit of Paris to Le Havre.
Appointment is taken at the Cergy Saint Christophe station; they arrive by taxi because RER A doesn’t work. We go on foot on the terrace of the major axis from where Bertrand describes the great landscape of the Paris region.
Then travel by minibus to Le Havre via Evreux, rebuilt on a completely different model, say exactly and the Isle d’Abeau, a new city where Bertrand with Alain who accompanies us, worked at the beginning before joining Cergy-Pontoise; when he arrived in Cergy-Pontoise, Alain created the chair of urban economics at ESSEC.
In Le Havre, Simon, director of the urban planning agency of Le Havre and former participant of the workshops, makes us feel the vibrations of the city rebuilt by Perret and its stakes; St. Joseph’s Church leaves us subjugated.
The team brought a huge A3 document that compiles aerial views close to the source of the Seine at its estuary. Simon gives us a XXL study, the aptly named, on logistics; It was carried out by the four planning agencies of the Seine Valley: those of Paris, Ile de France, Rouen and Le Havre. download the summary in 4 pages (in french): https://www.aurh.fr/media/na_6250_4pages_vds_xxl__008347700_1208_22032018.pdf
On the return, we will leave the team in Rouen; they want to experience the train, but they are exhausted for the Wednesday visit. This leaves us a little more time for the latest sets of documents and maps for the so-called productive seminar. He’s waiting for us, Thursday.
« Life in the metropolis in the XXIème century»
Episode 7 : a questioning seminar
This time, we are there: but the speakers have changed, the program is only released on the 11th for April 12th.
Pierre-André opens the day with a reminder of 5 workshops in the Paris region from 2012 to 2017 which prepared the 2018 workshop. Bertrand continues with a: « why this subject? » And introduced the large scale.
Then I take the lead to animate the rest of the day, first with our three sequences, focused on life. In the afternoon, the presents are divided into 3 tables whose purpose is to ask good questions.
All this allows the writing of a 4 pages, culmination of the preparation of the workshop: it integrates the contributions ginned over a year of preparation, collected in a dozen questions, documented in a few lines. I stick to it. For a direct access to this synthesis in the form of questions, difficult to write but very read,4 pages. (in english)
And for more sharing of this seminar, the course:
The large scale:
The chicago team questions: Phil Enquist « How big do we have to think? » Meiring Beyers: climate change is increasingly impacting everyday life: more diseases, mortality, economic losses, changes in energy consumption, water consumption, agricultural losses, rainfall; how can communities become resilient? For Drew Wensley, the planet’s population is growing, cities are critical. There is no single solution; How to think of several scales? see the présentation .
Gilles Billen, biogeochemist, director of research at the CNRS, (National Center for Scientific Research) points, among others, « these cities that do not manufacture their food » and describes two scenarios for the food of France, one that continues to open up to the international market with major neo-liberal projects such as Greater Paris; the other which reconnects food and local agriculture, without inputs. To be published in October 2018 Science of The Total Environment 637-638 ; see by then: http://www.eauetbio.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/FNAB_2016_Diaporama_S%C3%A9minaire-Nanterre_19janvier2016-Gilles-Billen.pdf. Carlos Moreno, professor of universities, University of Evry, notes: Metropolises become hyper-cities and hyper-regions, hyper connected; how to go to post carbon cities?
Exchanges with assistance:
At the end of each sequence, exchanges with the forty or so experts and actors present feed the reflections:
« Given these alarming elements, why live in the city? How to act concretely at the level of local authorities? In reality in institutions nothing happens. Countercultures already exist but are not valued. At what political scale should it act? The city / countryside debate raises the question of living space: how will one generation accept another way of using land to generate other practices? Given the experience of the city of Dakar, the consequence of urbanization is poverty: can we fight against this?»
Amandine Mallick urban planner, urban planning agency of Strasbourg ADEUS, reports a multi-faceted survey of 3,500 households on the criteria of location of their home in relation to the workplace: they place calm and tranquility away from the proximity of work; and place cultural life and nightlife last http://www.adeus.org/productions/les-notes-de-ladeus-ndeg126-habitat/files/note-126_liens-habitat-emploi_web.pdf . Eva Bouhnik, urban planner practitioner, member of the association Tempo Territorial, describes how to take into account the time in the development of the cities changes the glance on the issues facing the acceleration, to the desynchronized rhythms, on the vague borders of free time-time of work. http://tempoterritorial.fr/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/GuideInteractif.pdf
Exchanges with assistance:
« The spread of working time is interesting; the Lille-Roubaix-Tourcoing automatic metro system allows a service by the minute, night and day, during the 48h of the big clearance sale. How to define the periurban ring of Strasbourg? By abandoning the idea crown-center for a connected operation small municipalities-large communes. The phenomenon of metropolisation is structured by cultural values of the nineteenth century: the center is good, the periphery is not good … The Île-de-France has gone from 50 years of public polycentric planning policy to a return to development in an oil spot. What makes the difference between center and periphery is density. There is a wall of glass in the heads of Parisians, the first ring road: investments are to be made in the periphery but it is the Parisians who make the decisions. We did not anticipate the phenomenon of suburban – suburban commuting. Each city-dweller conveys social imaginaries to question today. The Adeus survey is scandalous: it highlights that people prefer calm and tranquility to nightlife and culture. What model of large-scale resilience / agriculture / car travel? Prices per square meter are becoming more expensive, housing smaller and smaller. The question is not the density but what the density allows livable: in the suburbs, there is no alternative to the car».
Local economies and common goods
Jean-Claude Levy, historian, geographer and journalist point: must we talk about the life cycle of waste? Or goods? Evidence in support:
L’économie circulaire raises the question of the use value, the exchange value and therefore the currency and the ground rent in relation to the goods. A strategic intelligence is likely to coordinate the action of the different actors by territorial levels, adapted to local contexts. Founding of the circular economy, this strategic intelligence refers to the proposal of pacte finance-climat of Jean Jouzel and Pierre Larouturou.
Guillaume Faburel, geographer and urban planner, professor at the Institute of Urbanism of Lyon, notes the anthropological rupture on the side of the care, the temperance which are read in the practices, lifestyles, the opinions, the systems of growth. How to settle the question of meta recit of the city, of the commons as shared values? What could be an alternative model of urban growth? Bio-region – polycentrism and re-regionalization as well as agglomeration scale, one can think otherwise.
Exchanges with assistance:
« The natural system is a cycle: produce, consume, digest. What is the good unity? The weather ? Energy? Can we use the street differently: mobility sharing, renaturation of the street space and social uses that are made of it? Public authorities have 20 to 30% of urban space that are streets. There is a gap between the speeches of the speakers and the reality of the transformations at work today: the acceleration of digital exchanges poses unbearable problems, the consumption challenges the sum of individual behaviors. Intelligences are dissolved in planning processes. We need experiments to test new uses. Experimentation, we are in everywhere: in China, the law on the promotion of the circular economy is 10 years old. The question of pleasure is to be introduced into the debate. Modernity has introduced the man / nature dichotomy; she is rebuilding. The natural agricultural land must be expensive, food self-sufficiency of the Paris basin is necessary. What are the implications of deceleration in terms of governance?»
Perspective from two workshop partners:
Two operational actors of the factory of the city conclude the morning:
Magali Castex, director of sustainable development in Grand Paris Aménagement, asks: how to reinvest the notion of public utility in planning with a notion of land protection? The city is too framed, too standardized to cash shocks of population variation. How to experiment? How to counterbalance the economic value of land? Should not we give more value to the design of the city, to the designers’ fees?
Pascal Dayre, Deputy Director of the Île-de-France public property establishment, notes that the city is now built in a model that is part of the market economy, stronger than ideas. Anticipation, regulation of flows, capture of land rent make it possible to give back this rent by operations offering less land, diversity and quality.
Dans l’après-midi, les 3 tables se mettent au travail: la restitution, brute:
Compared to Delhi, Jakarta, Karachi, etc … Life in London, Berlin, Paris is paradise. Just visit to realize it. How then to avoid going in this direction, to avoid infinite extension?What future? What aspirations of the younger generations?Migrations: on foot, by car, on horseback, by bike and if by car, electric; work is coworking.Paris-center is not the subject, it is the cities that are around that are at stake. But which ones? Those in the periphery? Those beyond urbanization continue, little towns and villages, but how to network?Mobility: the ideal is proximity. The best is to travel by bike, on foot … And housing depends on the quality of work: work is in the center of choice.
The question of the change of scale is not for the planners but for the populations: how can hundreds of thousands of people realize it? We do not have dozens of years; Change must be made quickly: how to make sure? From successful experiments, how can we deploy more widely? Ecology as an entry point: since ecology is gateway, then the territory is the watershed. How to reassemble the geography of uses with ecological geography, for a sustainable project if not by social ecology. For example, the use of the banks of the Seine leads to the construction of the « new urban dream ». After the garden city, the radiant city, the new cities: the ecological city, what image and what model?
Exciting exchanges …What are the units of measurement to choose from to have a different perspective on the metropolis of the 21st century?What are the significant indicators for defining life in metropolises?How to mitigate the center-periphery cleavage? How to requalify the periphery?Should we change the status of the land?Should we follow the Scandinavian model (no land ownership), or allow accession to all?To offer students a scenario: what if we had no car or truck? What would our priorities be? What solutions do we have?How to compensate / finance / pool the public space to strengthen the social link?
Shanghai proposes that each resident is within a maximum of 15 minutes walk from basic services. They thus think of proximity much more in terms of the services of life than under that of work. In terms of moves, only 17% of these are related to a new work. The rest concerns life choices, a compromise of a couple, a desire to be close to this, an environment, the proximity of a school etc … They will therefore accept to travel for a long time to live there where they want. The conception of the new cities (of Cergy) was thought from this angle: accessibility to services was thought upstream of the city. The question of the social appears little in our debates. This projection towards a dream city must be the means of reducing social fractures. In Rennes, they develop all their PLU in this perspective: everything on foot with access to green spaces, shops, services. We do not deal enough with the question of uses and users in our professions: how to really co-build with the inhabitants? Urban planners have ideas, utopias, visions that are imposed on the inhabitants, the vision of the inhabitants is not sufficiently taken into account in the design of the city. How to use new technologies to make them participate in the construction of the city of the future? Ongoing innovations in Europe. Be citizen: application to involve residents in urban policies, coming out this week. It is sometimes emphasized to temper the importance of participation that in the construction of a new neighborhood or a development operation, we do not know the new inhabitants. But the elders will still be there and their wishes deserve to be listened to. Question of anteriority?
There stops the seminary; the shock of experiences, of looks, in the broth of cultures, worked well.
As a thank you, this word sent the following day to the participants of the seminar: « The day after a party, there is no other word to tell you how much this day appeared rich of your contributions and the sparks of our meetings.
the big landscape workshop and beauty as a peaceful entry on sustainable development, the « how to make it happen » with the people and institutions of the workshop territorialize the transition, the development of how to think up to the stakes of the workshop of the knowledge economy, the renewal of the metabolism of our territories by the circular economy of the workshop on the future of the zones of activities, the treatment of the transition and the exclusion, the one by the other of the workshop the inclusive city.
There were more: good questions, with good scales of territory, enough to push our young participants to formulate actions, plans, a dream and some ways to achieve it. We now have to share with those who were not there».
Lack of luck, the camera had a technical problem. I will have to start writing 4 pages with Priscilla’s notes and mine. This synthesis is the culmination of the preparation of the workshop: it integrates the contributions ginned over a year of reflections and exchanges, well beyond the seminar therefore, collected in a dozen questions, documented in a few lines.
For a direct access to this synthesis in the form of questions, difficult to write but very read: 4 pages. (in english)
« Life in metropolises in the 21st century »
Episode 8: digital, end in itself or average?
This time, Frédérique, Director of Education and International Telecom Paris Tech who took charge of the evening. The physical presence having little to do with the virtual, and the ubiquity not being of this world, two weeks before the soiree, it is necessary to postpone it of fifteen days: because of the organization in Lyon of a great conference, no speaker is available.
Symbolic, this event marks the distinction between the real and the virtual.
From a report, made with Etienne, to a president of a large public company, I kept in mind this observation: the city suffers from two diseases, one chronicle, the exclusion, the other mortal, the climate change. There is a third, deadly for companies that do not anticipate it: the digital. And our democracy?
From the beginning of the preparation of this workshop, the debate on the digital is to say the least lively.
Solution to all our problems for some, big brother for others, the glass is, for neither, neither half full nor half empty. It seems like Aesop’s tongue, the best and the worst.
Go, a quote, extracted from The life of Aesop: Send John de La Fontaine to Monseigneur le Dauphin:
“On a certain market day, Xantus, who had planned to treat some of his friends, ordered him to buy the best and nothing else. « I will teach you, » says the Phrygian himself, « to specify what you wish, without relying on the discretion of a slave. » He bought only tongues, which he made available to all sauces, the entrance, the second, the entremets, all were only tongues. The guests first praised the choice of these dishes; in the end they became disgusted. « Did not I order you, Xantus, to buy what would be better? – And what is better than language? replied Aesop. It is the link of civil life, the key of science, the organ of truth and reason. Through it the cities are built and the police are built; we educate; we persuade; we reign in the assemblies; the first of all duties, which is to praise the Gods, is fulfilled. – Well (said Xantus, who claimed to catch him), buy me tomorrow what is worse: these same people will come to my house, and I want to diversify. « The next day, Aesop served only the same food, saying that language is the worst thing in the world: « It is the mother of all debates, the nurse of lawsuits, the source of divisions and wars. If it is said that it is the organ of truth, it is also that of error and, what is worse, calumny. Through it, cities are destroyed, evil things are persuaded. If on the one hand it praises the Gods, on the other, it professes blasphemies against their power. »
« Through it the cities are built, (…)Through it, cities are destroyed, evil things are persuaded.” Resonances.
At the party, Frédérique invited Luc Belot, CEO of HUB5, a subsidiary dedicated to digital issues and innovation at the Réalités group; but it is rather the elected of Angers that she invites, former deputy, rapporteur of the report From the smart city to the territory of intelligence (S). The future of the smart city. (in french) résumé et téléchargement du rapport
The second will come by video interposed: Alain Renk, founding partner of Urban Fabric Organization, claims the multidisciplinarity of his team with a motto « What if we take advantage of the digital to release creativity and invent easy-to-live cities? » And « a simple rule: make urban planning more accessible and more collaborative.”villes sans limites
The third guest, Olivier Jonas, is founder of Tecdev and a researcher in information technologies and planning. He notably published: Rêver la ville – Utopies urbaines : de la cité idéale à la ville numérique et Territoires numériques. Interrelations entre les technologies de l’information et de communication et l’espace, les territoires, les temporalités, (in french)
the political sphere, the application and the imagination are somehow going to talk to each other
At this moment, I have to tell you: the change of date of the evening prevented me from attending. It is with the written notes of Priscilla that I will tell you the evening.
in view of taking notes, (reader of these episodes, here I am, as you, to enrich myself by writing interposed) aspirations and fears were at the rendezvous.
Luc Bellot observes: the capture of the data makes it possible to go from a supply-demand logic to that of uses; but territorial cadres and elected officials are lost to these questions; the reality of the use is that it is no longer the elected one who decides, it is Waze, Tom Tom … for the trips in the residential streets for example. With the autonomous car, it is no longer the property but the use that will dominate: vehicle sharing, routes, carpooling; What about unused parking spaces in the 30% reduction of cars in the city center compared to local planning?
What place for the protection of personal data? It’s a question of freedom. See the general regulation (the equivalent of a European law) on data protection, decided by Europe.
It is a cybersecurity issue with hackers who have taken hostage hospitals in the United States.
It is a problem of trust in elected officials, with urban data that are captured by the Gafas and are all memorised. For what uses? See the facebook-Cambridge-Analytica political scandal or more prosaically the risks of capturing consumption data from the Linky meter (a French electricity meter with remote reading)
And to quote three guiding principles to regain control of democracy:
Governance: it can not be entrusted to large groups like Google in Toronto … Do these large groups have to decide or the elected representatives of the territories? Sovereignty: have the mastery of these tools for example the digital plan to manage all the services as in Angers. Complicated to manage by communities when these tools are owned by large private groups.
Inclusion: 16% of French people do not master reading-writing well enough to fill online administrative procedures How to integrate these citizens into participatory modes, how to put them in a position to have their own analysis, to give their point of view?
Léopold Kurek Institutional Sales – Asset Management
In video, Alain Renck presents the urban fabric organization app which is structured in 3 stages:
‐ Imagine: with photos-montages of the existing more comments and slogans
‐ Exchange: with a map of the world that allows sharing with the community and sorting by categories of themes. This allows to begin to create, from the interventions of the participants, a knowledge and a common content.
‐ Exist: with tools of semantic analysis, image recognition, artificial intelligence of metadata recognition to create a document of the stakes and wills of the participants, to make the link between professionals of the city and citizens.
Olivier Jonas created his consulting company in terms of digital development of the territories at a time when the internet arrived in France and where the territories and the French state were asking what would be the territorial impact. In the field of digital innovation and in particular on the three-dimensional modeling of the city, which makes it possible to visualize projects. For example, data retrieval to reduce the carbon footprint of territories, to see what is in the basement and access information on underground networks or to visualize management scenarios.
He notes the growing rapprochement between digital innovation, digital transformation and ecological transition; for example the livre blanc de l’IDDRI recently published, of the Cap digital competitiveness cluster integrates the sustainable city cluster, Advancity.
- This white paper scans 3 fields on these sustainable-smart city themes,
– Factory of the city: eco construction, urban agriculture, renewable energies …
– Urban management: network operators, optimization of urban networks, often
integrated into smart city rosette schemes with all urban functions
piloted, ambient intelligence – sensors in the city, waste treatment.
– Living in the city: services around the digital through the interface of the smartphone on travel, access to tourism resources, steps to take …
Then develops 9 innovation sectors and 4 digital dimensions at the service of collective intelligence in the urban field.
Les échanges :
Civicwise is a participatory urban planning platform but with the ability of the internet to share experiences on common issues. Local clusters and actors from other associated countries for collective intelligence.
The city no longer thinks of itself only from above and with all the citizens (its data) with or against its will: the individual is at the center. Is he aware? Does he understand? his he meeting his needs? his uses?
8% of the population is visually impaired or blind. What vocal aids? Most public and private service sites are not accessible
Collective intelligence and participation: they can not be done onely on the internet. It must be physical, it can not be on the internet.
Does not digital intelligence come to empty the intelligence of certain metiers? We are talking about a digital city but not about design, spatialization, quality of spaces, well-being
We see the effects today of lack of awareness of space because of the digital.
We need cultural tools in relation to cultural contexts. The maturity conditions of the systems of actors are to be created.
There is a big difference in temporalities: the digital goes very quickly, it is difficult to anticipate what will work in 5 years; while for urban planning, it takes at least 5 years before the first stone is laid on rhythms of at least 50 years before reconversion …
All this does not enter the world of local authorities except large.
Are there any studies on the transformation of humans with these technologies? Before we did not need support. What evolutions on the brain, the body, the eyes …?
Cognitive studies say: we lose and we win.
The generation of current teenagers, the adults of tomorrow, does not necessarily have the same caution as we do about the data.
Young people are not all in favor of developing technologies. For example, a new type of autism has developed with tablets used at a very young age.
« Life in metropolises in the 21st century »
Episode 9: economic and cultural attractiveness
The IAU, Institute of Planning and Urban Development is a bit like our parent company. It is not in the Delouvrier room that hosted the first seminar, but on the open floor and in the natural light of the cafeteria that the IAU proposes to house the evening, a place that fits well with the date June 21, the day of the international music festival. With what is now called the DRIEA, a regional directorate of the ministry in charge of ecology, the two institutions are at the foundation of urban mastery understood as a force for study, proposal and implementation of decisions taken in urban matters. Our partner IAU who is not a financier but contributes a lot in kind, wishes to seize the opportunity of this evening to bring the point of view of the IAU and with him of the Region on this double question. To prepare for the evening, Laurent agrees with Odile Soulard and Karine Camors, two economists of IAU cultural specialists, while Vincent Gollain, Director of Economic Development, will carry the economic component.
3 months before the evening, a report summarizes a first round of questions:
« The approach of the subject:According to BW, culture is an essential entry point into the subject of attractiveness
Where do we stand historically: today or in the future? What about the new cultural aspirations of young people? Lifestyles and uses are the common entrance for all the soirees of the Atelier. The new places of culture, ephemeral or not, are interesting: the famous cultural third-places. What about the speakers: researchers, politicians, actors in the field? How to overcome the antagonism model of Bilbao vs Berlin? Models of exogenous vs endogenous attractiveness? Impacts of Louvre Lens? Impacts of MUCEM on Marseille? What about the diffusion of these central cultural liners to the suburbs? What about behind the scenes: gentrification around (see E. Vivan), risk of drying up municipal subsidies by « flagship » equipment? What about « European Capitals of Culture » initiatives? Has there been any research on the effects of this funding? What about the impacts of cultural tourism? (see blog « the new cultural tourism » by Evelyne Lehalle). What are the oppositions between « cultural ships » (« in ») and a pool or more informal ecosystem? The case of 104 shows that a liner can have a very positive impact on its neighborhood.»
Two weeks before the soiree,the conducting wire le fil conducteur (in french)is in focus. The evening will focus on culture. In addition to the 4 of the IAU, laurent, Odile, Karinne, and Vincent, are invited to floor:
Clotilde Kullmann, Ph.D. in Geography, in charge of scientific animation of the Chair « Aménager le Grand Paris » – School of Urban Planning of Paris
Laetitia Lafforgue, actress, former president of the National Federation of Street Arts (2013-2016), spokesperson of the UFISC (Federal Union of Intervention of Cultural Structures)
At the opening of the evening, two figures slam: in the Île de France, culture weighs 300,000 jobs and 21 billion euros of added value released by cultural institutions. Geographical distribution can not be more unequal: Paris and the department of Hauts de Seine account for 75% of these jobs (for 30% of the population).
Vincent Gollain starts from INSEE’s definition of attractiveness, « the capacity of a territory to attract specific resources from outside » to state three levers, – innovation, skills and openness on the outside-, and two facilitators, -internal and external transport, the ability to work together-. It describes three models of cultural attractiveness: that of heavy equipment, the most widespread; that of the Montréal-style museum district with hotels and restaurants, that of Detroit, based on the individual dynamism of the actors.
Clotilde Kullman approaches it as a mode of designing cities, from universal exhibitions to the stations of Greater Paris passing by art in the territories developt by Jean-Eudes Roullié and the new towns or the « 1% decoration » established in 1951 for each construction. of public building. And finds that today the creators are centered on the « experiences » most often from diverted buildings: the space is an integral part of the work, the process is more important than the final result, the artist is involved in participatory approaches.
Laetitia Laforgue makes a double observation: we are facing an ecological, economic, demographic and migratory crisis. Yet never before have so many people had access to culture; and ask a question: how is it that there is such a loss of humanity? We have gone from cultural rights, access to works of art, to the right to culture « as defined by the Charter of Human and Citizen Rights, which recognizes culture as the set of values, beliefs, institutions and ways of life, by which a people seeks meanings and development. »
In doing so, « we went from the primacy of the work of art to the primacy of the person, with the issue of the emancipation of people, the development of critical thinking, the ability to express ideas, apprehension personal that merges with that of my neighbor and makes humanity. From then on, « to reveal spaces, to make dream, to provoke disturb the public tranquility of the bodies and the spirits to animate the spirits, to question our ways of life, our ways of thinking ». Clotilde is involved in street art because that art takes people for what they are and not as they represent themselves. It is part of the social and solidarity economy. She notes that the 300 000 direct poverty of the culture are to put in comparison with those of the automobile (nb: 200 000 jobs).
Interpersonal exchanges focus on the visibility to be given to a territory, the least solo, more together; endogenous and exogenous development (cf subject document); metropolitan concentration and rural; the irruption of the digital world, which announced the end of the major equipment but people want to see, touch, feel the works; originality developed through street art; digital and manipulation-regression-normalization; and even more the growing privatization of public spaces, the abandonment of culture by politicians. With this latest statement: « as long as I do, I prefer the course of books of the ministry to that of google or Amazon, a fortiori the National Front who withdraws books from the public library as when they arrived at the head of the municipality of Orange « .
Exchanges with the hall remind us that the great landscape is a work of art like the major axis in Cergy-Pontoise and question the creation of events that last, in the countryside, like the Marciac Jazz Festival; the cultural deserts of the suburbs refer to the access to cultural capital according to the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, which does not necessarily refer to equipment and buildings; Culture is a two-blade tool; in the hands of the powerful, it is a weapon of domination; gardened by the dominated, she is emancipatory. The beauty of the big landscape like that of Paris which remains among the last of the low capitals in the world is a common good, how does one manage it? ; the passage of the work to the person and of the person to that of the money in his portfolio keeps each day a little more away from the emancipatory re-presentation, from the gratifying delectation that opens the imagination, puts death at a distance, illuminates a path personal and collective development, protects from dictators of all kinds; and ask this question: would the pursuit of riches in the lights of the city have reached a point where it contradicts the good life? To make the actors work together around a vision, a territorial project, an intelligence to build appears like an unavoidable answer and raises the question of the artistic education, the practice of the music, the theater, the representation…
It is 8 pm, we go out on the street. The air is sweet, filled with the first notes of the festival of music.
« Life in metropolises in the 21st century »
Episode 10: gigantism and metropolitan mobilities
The immersion file is well named. Usually called background document, Solenne proposes that we change its name as its size corresponds to the scope of the subject that we want to describe in a simple and problematizing way. Simply to describe the capital region is reductive, necessarily reductive, even in more than 100 pages, even wondering what are the highlights. As to be problematizing, one year of preparation led to the 8 questions documented in a few lines of the 4 pages; then we decide to try to select the questions again with a last press round: what questions?
They come out in two: gigantism and the mobilities that go with it; the big landscape and the climate challenge.
The question of rescaling :
Gigantism is a fact. An increase of 50% of the population of the capital region in the last half century, 3 million additional inhabitants over the next thirty years, announced by INSEE: in current terms, the question that arises is not where are we going to put them but where do they want to go? It is the question of the change of scale of what makes megalopolis.
Metropolitan mobilities and lifestyles:
The mobilities go with, inevitably with, whatever the scenario imagined; internal and external mobility but mobilities of a global megalopolis. From the most sought-after proximity to forced nomadism; constrained first by the price of housing and the acceptability of the conditions that go with: the distance between home and work and the living conditions for oneself and one’s relatives.
« Life in metropolises in the 21st century »
Episode 11: Great landscape and climate challenge
Why link great landscape and climate challenge? After the reflections conducted by the DRIEA (of the Ministry of Ecology and Planning) with the 8 EPA of Île-deFrance (Public Developers), two workshops have highlighted this link, one on the large landscape in France. 2012, the other on the transition in 2014, with this logical sequence: food, eco-energies, eco-materials, grow in the countryside and are consumed in the city; it is a matter of renewable productions and territorial organization; in other words, of collective intelligence at different scales of territory: this requires the rational inevitable distribution of spaces and resources to live well. His spatial expression falls on the great landscape, a soothing entry on the subject. Why soothing?
Questions of great landscape:
Curiously, we are not going to spend our holidays in activity zones, nor in landfills nor in ugly cities. On the other hand, it seems that great landscapes attract by their natural beauty, agricultural or urban, do good. If we admit that we spend most of our time where we live, where we work, the great landscape of everyday life becomes a lever issue. The one needed by the megalopolis which includes the city and surrounding countryside.
The climate wall and the global middle class:
Facts and logical sequence: why is it still necessary to say that there is urgency to take the climate threat seriously? Why are lobbies and their backers bent on blocking any reduction in greenhouse gas emissions? Would they hate themselves, themselves and their children, to the point of wanting diseases and deaths, floods and cancers? Or do they believe they are protected by their money? And if human nature can not be changed, what to do? Is there another option than the development of territorials and strategics intelligences, contextualized? No ? So in this case what remains to be done?
« Life in metropolises in the 21st century »
Episode 12: Foreword
Numerous experts and personalities from all walks of life have contributed to making this workshop preparation, to creating this magical place that for a month gives power to two dozen young professionals, provided they present good questions at the right scales. territory and ideas to act, to an international jury that, if you allow the expression, will not give his share to the dog.
But 3 people assume the role of pilots, by delegation of the scientific guidance committee, which, you understood, has also put strong and happy hand in the dough. Together, they guarantee the scientific content, as much as it can be, of the workshop. So it seems enlightening to hear what these three pilots have to say about their intentions, as a person, as they wrote in the foreword of the immersion document, to the address of the participants: three forewords
End of a soap opera for the summer and beginning of the actual workshop which starts Tuesday, September 3, with a program of visits charged, teams of participants still to constitute, for a collective work of these young professionals whose, if we take in acount of the 36 previous workshops, they will remember the rest of their age …
At the foot of the wall of creativity
design Bertrand Warnier
With thanks to all those who contributed to this preparation